Example task : Think out a new action principle for a coffee - percolator. Certainly, it should work and produce drinkable coffee. The elements coffee and water are given. With the exception, the pharmaceutical industry makes progress in the construction of the human being, which is resistent to solvents. The unknown combination is the action principle of coffee - percolators unknown up to now.
Example task : Animals live in liquids or gases. Create a living being, which lives in a stiff solid, for example, inside the rocks. What does the living being consist of? What structures can we find in the living being? How was it able to develop? How does it look like? Is it visible? In which higher systems do the individual organisms and systems combine? What do theese living beings "feed" and how do they regenerate? How do they move and how do they made a change of place? In which direction goes their evolution?
The basic forms, which are above described, should, of course, be illustrated with the solutions of the example tasks and not even with the tasks. As I do not organize a creativity course here, I renounce of a description of the solutions. But you can be sure, that reasonable solutions exist for all tasks used here. (see : Brand,L. (1993) : Mehr Krativität für Praktiker durch Computer - aided - inventing, ~200 S.; at work)
After sundry preliminary remarks, now let us come to the computer - aided - inventing. We look at the solutions of the problems with the aid of some examples :
Example task : In order to develop a highly - selective insecticide against one kind of grain - beetles it is necessary to determine the body temperature in various temperatures of the enviroment. You have got this task and have to make 250 measurements within a month. For this purpose 50.000 US$ are available to you. An inaccuracy of the measurement of not more than 0.1 degree Kelvin between 10 and 35 øC is allowed. You have to aspire to a higher accuracy. The size of the grain - beetles, which have to be measured, is 0.1 till 1.0 mm. It does not exist a suitable measuring method for it.
The whole solution of the problem we can find within a project - management - system. In order to analyse the task computerizably the "questioner" is called first. This programm covers interactively the conditions of the task. After having got the necessary data to space of time, funds and objects, the PM - system starts to produce a provisional map of network. For this purpose it goes back to diverse data banks in order, for example, to find out how much time do the analyses take and how much money is really available for the measuring instrument. We suppose, 20 working days are available. The measurements take 10 days and the evaluation takes one day. Nine days remain to make available the measuring instrument and to compensate failures. Only for the measurement instrument available 35.000 US$.
Often the next step is to call an auxiliary programme, the "shreder", which interactively produces an abstract technical system from the given data. In our case this is not necessary, because it is the task class "measurement of a physical quantity of an unchangable object". The PM - system already knows it. The "shreder" as works as other components on the basis of the theory from professor Polovinkin. I use the symbolism of professor Altschuller for the illustration to make it clear to you.
Then, the PM - system starts enquiring the "dictionary of technical functions". Technical objects with all parameters and its abstract structure are stored in this data bank. Therefore it is, for example, possible to call all technical solutions concerning the concrete task. Be careful not to mix it up with the search for physical effects. The mainfield of application of this system is the transformation of an abstract solution into a concrete technical object. The call at the beginning is for checking. It may be possible that the worker has overlooked solutions, which already exist. In our case the dictionary was not able to suggest a suitable measuring system, too. Afterwards it is necessary to specify the task. It is taken over by the "trigger". It has technical basic knowledge but it is not an expert system. But he knows, that there is a proportion relation between the workpiece and the instrument. The latter is mostly one or two sizes smaller. This means, that the measuring head has to have a size of 0.05 till 0.005 mm. If you enquire the dictionary, you will again not get a measuring method.
The following intermediate information are handed over from theese data to the PM - system : (formulated in colloquial language)
measuring head too big : If I was able to find a sufficient small measuring head, the problem would be able to be solved.
object too small : If the object was bigger, I would be able to apply the existing measuring methods without problems.
contradiction : size : Our contradiction is, that I have to expand the object in order to use existing measuring instruments. But this is not possible because of the conditions of the task, which are not allow it. (measurement of a physical quantity of an unchangable object) Nevertheless existing measuring methods can not be reduced as you like. This variant requires more time and money as available.
Then the accuracy of the necessary measuring method will be analysed. As it is not allowed to change our object, the only way is a contact heat transmission (The temperature radiation is too little.). In order to make it short : The quantity of heat, which is necessary to measure the temperature, is larger than the available one. Finally the beetle is not allowed to catch a cold. The following data can be overtaken to the PM - system. : (formulated in colloquial language)
quantity of heat too little : The beetles are allowed to give up only little quantities of heat in order to guarantee the accuracy of the measuring method. Besides their temperature is not allowed to change.
quantity of heat too large : Measuring methods on the basis of contact heat transmission ever need larger quantities of heat as available.
contradiction : quantity : I have to use a larger quantity of heat in order to quarantee the accuracy of the measurement. However it is not allowed to use a larger quantity of heat. As soon as the PM - system has got the data to contradictions, it can call the "trigger". First of all the system tries to use standard solution methods.
One possibility to expand the object is, for example, to use a larger number of single objects. By the way we get the same solution of the problem : little quantity <---> large quantity. With other words : We take a large number of beetles and use a standard temperature measuring instrument.
The dictionary is called again in order to determine the concrete measuring instrument. Finally the data banks are made up - to - date as far as possible.
The result of the production of pig - iron in blast - furnaces is liquid slag, which is transported in open foundry ladles to the slag processing plants. About 30 percent of the slag are lost through the formation of a solid crust, which is extremely thick at the edge. It must be taken out with a high expense of work and is brought to a dump. In order to save costs of investments it is searched a method, which does without lid, slag conduit or other reconstructions.
Our administrative contradiction is : The slag transport is to improve but the improvement is not allowed to cost anything.
In order to determine the technical contradiction we have to go far back :
A : What is changed according to the conditions of the task? The loss of energy of
First, we try to use method principles, which in general are used to solve analogous technical contradictions. We get the following proposals out of the table :
3 x Principle of change of the physical state of an object The lid has to become either liquid or gaseous. The slag serves the purpose yet.
2 x Principle of the preceding effect An example for a preceding effect is a lid, which already exists before needing it.
2 x Principle of replacement of mechanical objects The mechanical lid is to replace through something not mechanical.
2 x Principle of colour change This principle is probably unsuitable.
1 x Principle of taking to pieces
The lid has to be taken to pieces. You have to work with a large number of smaller lids. Usually this step does not lead to the solution, because effective solutions consist of different principles. We determine the physical contradiction : Two elements are given, the hot slag and the cold air as well as a field, the temperature gradient. The surface of the slag has to be hot in order to prevent the slag from solidifying and has to be cold in order to prevent it from cooling down. The above described substance - field - system is a so - called harmful substance - field - system. This is destroyed and made ineffectively through modifying one of the both substances. That is, it is incorrect to introduce another substance, the lid. Technical objects, like the slag, are easier to modify than natural objects like the air of the enviroment. In which way I am able to modify the slag? Let us look at the above mentioned method principles.
Change of the physical state of the slag : solid slag, gaseous slag and slagfoam. Only the latter is efficient.
Still the best method has to be determined experimentally in order to produce the foam. The most promising way is to bring in wet, porous slag while the slag - tapping.
The shown method manner is only one part of the methodology, because EDV - (electronic data processing) solutions have to be larger algorithmized.
In 1897 Russel discovered, that the clear surface of oxides of some metals is able to produce a latent picture on a photographic plate. It will do to lay a zinc - ring on a plate in a darkroom in order to get a reprint of it. The action principle is relatively easy : The unprecious metal surface reacts with the atmospheric humidity and released atomic hydrogen and oxidizes. The atomic hydrogen, which is rich in energy, corrodes the light - sensitive stratum and blackens it.
So far so good if the zinc - ring is, for example, 100 mm away from the plate, nevertheless, it became blacken. However atomic hydrogen is not able to overcome such a distance. Molecular hydrogen does not corrode the light - sensitive stratum. (Mitrofanov - effect)
Without doubt, here we deal with a physical contradiction. While the formation, but not on the transport way, exist a substance, the atomic hydrogen. Such problems show the superiority of the Altschullerïs theory. You only have to find out the right - standard and you have the solution. Nothing is in the way to realize it per EDV (electronic data processing) and one branch of the Altschullerï school works in that way, too. But let us come back to our problem :
If there is a conflict between quality and antiquality, the conflict can be solved through the seperation in space, time or structure. If you take the substance in pieces of time, than it is useful that the substance realized the transition from one state into another state of itself. With other words, atomic hydrogen combines with molecular hydrogen and the "Braunsche motion" transported it to the light - sensitive stream. But one part of the molecules keeps all energy of the atomic hydrogen. As the energy distribution of all molecules corresponds to the "Gauásche standard distribution", a very little part of the molecules have a large quantity of energy and speed of moment. By this means some molecules of hydrogen are able to be decomposed into atomic hydrogen if they collide with these very fast molecules.
I take for granted that PM - systems are known and for that reason I renounce to explain it. Certainly, the system is able to have mandators and permits a simultaneous work with an almost unlimited number of projects. All data to the objects are coded as far as they are not decontrolled by the worker.
The conditions of the task are registered interactively. The theory, on which the following working steps are based on, determines the size of the analysis. A good basis is the ARIS, the "algorithm for the solution of inventive tasks".
The TRIS, the "theory for the solution of inventive tasks", makes available a lot of new instruments. These can be used to transform the concrete task into an abstract technical system.
Usually this data bank comes from the CAD - systems. This is connected with the development of computer - aided - inventing from "intelligent" CAD - systems. Meanwhile it is applied in other fields, too. In this instrument we can also find differences in the theoretical starting point. This instrument was usually used for the search for new technical laws in the school of professor Altschuller.
It has a so - called technical basic knowledge. It compares abstract systems with technical laws, which it knows. This refers both the development of technical systems and its structure. This is a real "prognostication machine", which is able to predict qualitative changes. In the special case it compares the prediction with the current condition and so it is able to find out problems and contradictions.
It has a lot of aids in order to solve various problems. In this programme the theoretical views of the schools are very different. For this reason various creativity techniques are used. In the following is given short introduction into the methods, which are most frequently used.
morphological matrices : Twenty - dimensional search spaces with a large number of variants per dimension are controlled. Conditional on the broad theoretical penetration of technical problems, it is possible to use optimalized search strategies. The morphological matrix almost works as a good chessplayer. It only takes into consideration such variants, which are able to become successfully. For that reason combinatory avalanches are avoided. Ten in forty variants have to be considered and to compare in a twenty - dimensional search space with 100 variants. Of course, the available technique limites the number of the dimensions. The expense almost linear depends on the product from the number of dimensions and the maximal number of variants in one dimension. This technique is especially suitable if the data bank of physical effects is used in order to fill up the variants automatically. Otherwise, now as before, it is not more effective than the brainstorming.
And - or trees : This method is a special form of a morphological matrix. It is used for hierarchical analyses.
Heuristic methods of solutions from Polovinkin : Professor Polovinkin created his theory for computers. For this reason it is rather unclearly arranged and it neglects the particularities of the human psyche. Therefore I refer to the original sources.
If someone uses the computer - aided - inventing, the following proceeding is advisable :
As a starting point I would take the theory of professor Altschuller, because it is better consolidated theoretically. In addition the theory of professor Polovinkin develops more and more into the dirrection of TRIS and, now as before, neglects psychological points of view.
Build up a training college in order to give the basis of this methodology to engineers, strudents and workers. Among other things the great advantage of professor Altschuller is based on his passibility to include a large number of students and participants in the course in the research. Only they are able to supervise all technical and scientific developments free of charge and to prepare them for the continous development of the theory.
Foundation of a softwarehouse, which transforms the theoretical results of the centre into new programmes and commercializes them. Likewise this firm has to carry out the user service.
Use in the improvement of the production and in the research in as many special fields as possible. Not before this phase the use of computer - aided - inventing is profitable.
While the further development, which is permanently necessary, please pay attention to the following steps :
For the social acceptance it is still necessary to remark, that certain reservations exists against the algorithmization of creative abilities in the Christianity. But if we look at the "Koan - school" of the Buddhism, we will find out that it resembles the seminars of the school of professor Altschuller.
Till the realization of real AI - solutions it is still a long way to go. Even today solutions, which can be put into practice, are possible in the field of computer - aided - inventing. The necessary prerequisites of hardware and software are given everywere. There is a lack of information and a lack of readiness to get down to this technique, which is granted unusual.
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Altschuller, G.S. (1984) : Erfinden - Wege zur Lösung technischer Probleme, Berlin: VEB Verlag Technik.
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